Three-dimensional (3D) printing involves printing layer-by-layer to form a 3D structure. Metal printing is more challenging than polymer printing. This technology business is timely (one of the hottest areas in today's emerging technology), with outstanding financial return potential, based on sound technology that evolved from Chung's internationally recognized research (with peer-reviewed publications) since 1994, and covered by a pending patent totally owned by Chung and to be transferred to PMP. The subject is clearly attractive to potential investors. PMP will give the world’s first cost-effective metal 3D printing technology – amenable to fast printing and the printing of large objects (even cars) without using metal powder, laser or electron beam. The business scope includes manufacturing, sale and servicing of 3D metal printers. The PMP technology uniquely uses a metal-liquid-based particle-filled fluid that is thixotropic (like toothpaste) and that, upon cooling, becomes a...
Three-dimensional (3D) printing involves printing layer-by-layer to form a 3D structure. Metal printing is more challenging than polymer printing. This technology business is timely (one of the hottest areas in today's emerging technology), with outstanding financial return potential, based on sound technology that evolved from Chung's internationally recognized research (with peer-reviewed publications) since 1994, and covered by a pending patent totally owned by Chung and to be transferred to PMP. The subject is clearly attractive to potential investors. PMP will give the world’s first cost-effective metal 3D printing technology – amenable to fast printing and the printing of large objects (even cars) without using metal powder, laser or electron beam. The business scope includes manufacturing, sale and servicing of 3D metal printers. The PMP technology uniquely uses a metal-liquid-based particle-filled fluid that is thixotropic (like toothpaste) and that, upon cooling, becomes a particle-reinforced metal-matrix composite that exhibits high strength and modulus (needed for structural performance), low thermal expansion (needed for good bonding between the printed layers) and high creep resistance (as needed for dimensional accuracy). The printers in the market involve lasers or electron beams and sell at ˃$250,000, where the PMP printer will sell at ~$25,000. The low price will broaden the market to include small companies and individuals (not just large companies). The low price will allow the simultaneous use of multiple printers for printing a large object like a car. The simultaneous use of multiple printers will further enhance the printer sale. The PMP technology allows the printing of large objects, even with a single printer. Printers in the market are limited to the printing of small objects, due to the chamber in which the printing occurs and the low printing rate. The PMP technology involves metal ingots. Printers in the market use metal powder, which suffers from high cost and surface oxidation. The PMP technology differs from semi-solid processing, which involves an alloy in the semi-solid state and does not provide adequate thixotropy, material choice or printed material performance. Compared to the alloys made by semi-solid processing, the metal-matrix composites exhibit low thermal expansion, low creep and high modulus. A patent is pending (US Application No. 14742694). It is solely owned by Chung and will be transferred to
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Recommendations

Patrick Cheung

3D printing of aluminum is extremely remarkable because there are a lot of industries that can benefit from the ability to make a one-off part that is of high strength and perhaps is conductive. One example is the auto-collision body repair industry. If body panels can be printed, there will be no need to keep extra replacement panels in storage. Manufacturers can come out with new designs more frequently to better compete and to catch up with a changing market.

Teddy Lee

Prof. Chung has patented a more efficient design application of 3D metal printing process that is more cost effective in production of parts.

John Alvin

I have known Deborah Chung since the late 1970s when I was on faculty at
the University of Pittsburgh. (I retired in 2011.) Professor Chung was
on faculty in Materials Science at Carnegie Mellon University at the
time. She was at the forefront of carbon science and continues to be
till now.
Deborah has always been honorable and strong in character, faithful to her religion, excellent in her profession and respected by her compatriots. She is also an excellent pianist, with a voice to match.
I am proud to have her as a friend and colleague.
Respectfully

John D. Alvin, Ph.D., B.Ph.

Xiao Lifeng

3D printing is hot in current market, but 3D metal printing is still difficult. I am excited Professor Chung has proposed such practical method with creative idea of thixotropic metal and non-mold manufacture for large scale metal structure. I bet it will be one of the most exciting and revolutionary invention in the filed of materials and manufacture in 21st century, just because it will substantiately change the making way of metal structure until now.

Shi-Hau Own

This invention is revolutionary by using molten metal liquid phase powder processing method. The shear thinning effect (thixotrophic) in the molten liquid powder mixture makes it possible to form metal matrix composite at much lower processing temperature. This technology can not only used to form metal matrix composites, but also ceramic reinforced metal matrix composites. Due to the low processing temperature, it is a low cost high productivity process. This is a significant technology breakthrough with unlimited business opportunity.

Sampa Chakrabarti

Practical 3D metal printing is an amazing invention by Prof. Chung. This will surely be widely accepted throughout the world.

Lan Wong

The thixotropic approach of metal 3-D printing invented by Deborah Chung of Practical 3D Metal Printing is revolutionary. This will open up new ways to manufacture large and small metallic objects in many industries such as auto, aerospace, appliance, and many others.